The Broch of Gurness is one of the most outstanding surviving examples of an Iron Age settlement that is unique to northern Scotland.
A uniquely Scottish monument
Brochs are unique to Scotland. There are over 500 of them, the vast majority spread throughout the northern and western Highlands and the islands. Many of these tall circular towers stood alone, but in Orkney they were generally surrounded by sizeable villages. The broch village at Gurness is one of the most impressive. It has also been archaeologically excavated, thus providing a more vivid impression of life in the Scottish Iron Age than other comparable sites.
A thousand years of settlement
Archaeological excavations in the early 20th century showed that the village began between 500 and 200BC. A large area, roughly 45m across, was defined by deep ditches and ramparts. At a later stage, an entrance causeway was added on the east side, and a circular broch tower built in the west half. Around the latter arose a settlement of small stone houses, with attached yards and sheds. Some time after AD 100 the broch was abandoned and the ditches filled in. The site thereafter continued as a single farmstead until around the 8th century. The last activity came in the 9th century, when a Viking woman was buried here with her grave-goods.
Gurness Broch was probably the residence of the principal family of the community. It also provided the last defensive resort. Within its massively thick walls the broch originally had a single central hearth, a ring of stone-built cupboards around the wall, and a sunken water feature traditionally interpreted as a well. A spiral stair led up to upper levels in the tower and to the wall-head. When the broch began to collapse, this arrangement was altered. The ‘well’ was filled in and the interior refitted with new partitions. Most of what the visitor sees today dates from this secondary phase.
The broch village
The village at Gurness is the best-preserved of all broch villages. There are numerous houses. Each had an entrance leading to a large living-cum-sleeping room, off which lay smaller side rooms. The main room had a hearth, a large tank set into the floor, cupboards and sleeping spaces. Some houses had a yard outside, open to the sky, and a separate shed.
A Viking cemetery
The Vikings who settled in Orkney from around 800 often used the mounds of earlier settlement sites as burial places, and this was the case at Gurness. The grave of a Viking woman was found here, along with some grave-goods – a sickle blade and a pair of ‘tortoise’ brooches. Human bones and other Viking objects, including shield bosses, suggest that Viking men were buried at the site also.
ORKNEY EXPLORER PASS:
The key to unlocking thousands of years of History at some of the Top Attractions in Orkney. The Orkney Explorer Pass is the ideal way for your clients to enjoy the fantastic heritage offered on Orkney.
BUY ONLINE http://tickets.historic-scotland.gov.uk/webstore/shop/ViewItems.aspx?CG=TKTS&C=REGIONALEP
Places to Visit:
- Visit the 5,000 year old village of Skara Brae and see what life was like in the Stone Age.
- This world famous Maeshowe was built before 2700BC. The large mound covers a stone built passage and a burial chamber with cells in the walls. Timed tours now operate, please call in advance to book on 01856 761 606
- The Bishop’s Palace is a 12th-century hall-house in Kirkwall. The notorious Patrick Stewart, Earl of Orkney, built the adjacent Earl’s Palace between 1600 and 1607.
- Surrounded by a warren of Iron Age buildings, the Broch of Gurness probably dates to the 1st century AD.
- The Brough of Birsay is a Pictish and Norse powerbase with well, replica carvings, ruins of Norse homes and 12th century church.
- Hackness Martello Tower & Battery is one of a pair of towers built between 1813 and 1815 to provide defence against French and American privateers for British convoys assembling in the sound of Longhope.
Due to the number of sites closed over the winter period it is not advisable to buy the Orkney Pass for use between October & March.